5th ISBMUN Conference
Day 1 : Piracy and Maritime Crime
International maritime crime and piracy are becoming increasingly sophisticated as criminal groups exploit administration and prosecution challenges and pose an immediate danger to the lives and safety of people. Since two-thirds of the earth’s surface is ocean and nearly all of that is beyond any state’s territorial waters, it is not subject to even a single state jurisdiction. These waters have always been open for vessels of all countries, both coastal and landlocked, to support international trade and economic cooperation, contact among people and the responsible use of natural resources. The most cost-effective way to move goods and raw materials in bulk around the world is across oceans and coastal waters. Piracy affects the freedom of navigation and world trade and poses a threat to international security and individual safety. Maritime crime by its nature involves vessels, cargoes, crews, victims, and illicit money flow from many regions. Since jurisdiction at sea is complex, crime committed is often unseen and enforcement is difficult. Therefore, it is imperative to strengthen national capacity to avoid and address maritime crime and piracy against ships to sustain the reduced occurrence or the eradication of these crimes. At the same time, the various governments must strive for inter-regional cooperation against criminal activities at sea; working to secure the container trade supply chain; and combatting terrorism, human trafficking and migrant smuggling, wildlife and fisheries violations, firearms trafficking and other emerging crimes.
Day 2 : Criminal Justice Reform
Criminal justice reform is a key element of any administration to address fundamental, institutional and structural issues within the system. Around the world, prison management and the treatment of prisoners are two essential areas within the criminal justice system. Essentially, to ensure that imprisonment is used as an opportunity to correct more than punish, prison administrators must be able to correctly classify prisoners; an important move which helps strengthen their ability to rehabilitate and reduce reoffending. In most countries of the world, detention and imprisonment are the main measures imposed on individuals who are suspected of having breached the criminal law or have indeed been convicted of a criminal offence. The over-employment of jails leads to a series of mutually reinforcing challenges in responding appropriately to the social reintegration needs of offenders, whilst also violating the rights of those who are innocent. The promotion of human rights provides the underlying rationale for the promotion of prison reform. However, this rationale alone is often unable to bring about prison reform in certain countries. The damaging and negative impact of imprisonment, not only on individuals but also on families and communities, together with economic factors, must be taken into account when considering the need for prison reform. However, we must not fail to recognise or underestimate the role of the police, prosecution and judiciary in criminal justice reform. In some environments, including post-conflict situations, the police perpetrate serious human rights violations against the civilians they are supposed to protect. Therefore, transforming police organizations into rights-respecting institutions and promoting training for police officers with a focus on human rights principles is necessary. A public prosecutor is obligated to uphold the rule of law and to ensure the accused receives a fair trial. Miscarriages of justice damage the integrity of criminal justice systems and violate public trust; therefore, it is imperative that public prosecutors protect the right to a fair trial. An effective court system, along with access to legal defence and aid, is an integral part of a functioning criminal justice system. Thus, the UNODC must work with the various governments to ensure a coherent and comprehensive strategic approach that supports all aspects of an effective and efficient criminal justice system.